Many of the pages of this website include information about specific mental health problems and related statistical information (e.g. the lifetime prevalence of a particular problem and how well it responds to psychological treatment). To this end, amongst the text you may come across superscript numbers like this 1 which denotes where the statistical information we cite came from. While most casual readers may not be interested in this, we acknowledge that there will be some of you who would like to know where these numbers are coming from, and by association, that our approach to treatment is based on research evidence and best practice.

  1. Hansen, N. B., Lambert, M. J., & Forman, E. M. (2002) The psychotherapy dose-response effect and its implications for treatment delivery services. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9(3), 329-343.
  2. Lipsey, M. W. & Wilson, D. B. (1993) The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment: Confirmation from meta-analysis. American Psychologist, 48, 1181—1209.
  3. Lambert, M. J., & Ogles, B. M. (2004) The efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (5th ed., pp. 139-193). New York: Wiley.
  4. Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M. C., Bernert, S., et al. (2004) Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. ;(420):21-7.
  5. Karpiak, C. P. and Norcross, J. C. (2005) Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in the General Population. In Koocher, G. P. and Norcross, J. C. (2005). Psychologists’ Desk Reference (2005) Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders (2nd ed., pp. 3-6). Oxford University Press.
  6. McManus, S., Brugha, T., Meltzer, H. and Jenkins, R. (2009) Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England 2007: Results of a household survey. NHS Information Centre.
  7. Bland, R. C., Newman, S. C., and Orn, H. (1997). Age and Remission of Psychiatric Disorders. Can J Psychiatry, 42(7):722-9.
  8. Bland, R. C. (1997) Epidemiology of affective disorders: a review. Can J Psychiatry, 42(4):367-77.
  9. McGorry, P. D., Purcell, R., Goldstone, S., Amminger, G. P. (2011) Age of onset and timing of treatment for mental and substance use disorders: implications for preventive intervention strategies and models of care. Curr Opin Psychiatry, 24:301-6.
  10. Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S. and Ustün, T. B. (2007) Age of onset of mental disorders: A review of recent literature. Curr Opin Psychiatry, 20(4):359-64.
  11. Kessler, R.C., Angermeyer, M., Anthony, J. C. et al. (2007) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization’s World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry, 6(3):168-76.
  12. Barlow, D. H. (2008) Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders. Guildford Press.
  13. Davey, G. (2008) Psychopathology: Research, Assessment and Treatment in Clinical Psychology. BPS Blackwell.
  14. Massion, A. O., Dyck, I. R., Shea, M. T., Philips, K. A., Warshaw, M. G. and Keller, M. B. (2002) Personality Disorders and Time to Remission in Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 59(5):434-40.
  15. Clark, D. M., Ehlers, A., Hackmann, A., McManus, F., Fennell, M., Grey, N., Waddington, L. and Wild, J. (2006) Cognitive Therapy Versus Exposure and Applied Relaxation in Social Phobia – A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Consult Clin Psychol, 74(3):568-78.
  16. Cooper, M. (2008) Essential Research Findings in Counselling and Psychotherapy: the facts are friendly. Sage Publications.
  17. Heinz, A., Beck, A., Grüsser, S. M., Grace, A. A. and Wrase, J. (2009) Identifying the neural circuitry of alcohol craving and relapse vulnerability. Addict Biol, 14(1):108-118.
  18. Heldt, E., Kipper, L., Blava, C., Salum, G. A., Hirakata, V. N., Otto, M. W. and Manfro, G. G. (2011) Predictors of relapse in the second follow-up year post cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 33(1):23-9.
  19. Hardt, J., Jacobsen, C., Goldberg, J. Nickel, r. and Buchwalk, D. (2008) Prevalence of Chronic Pain in a Representative Sample in the United States. Pain Med, 9(7):803-12.
  20. Yonkers, K. A., Bruce, S. E., Dyck, I. R. and Keller, M. B. (2003) Chronicity, relapse, and illness–course of panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder: findings in men and women from 8 years of follow-up. Depress Anxiety, 17(3):173-9.
  21. Rosa-Alcazar, A. I.,  Sánchez-Meca, J., Gómez-Conesa, A. and  Marín-Martínez, F.  (2008) Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: A meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev., 28(8):1310-25.
  22. Thomson, A. & Page, L. (2007). Psychotherapies for hypochondriasis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).
  23. McManus, F., Surawy, C., Muse, K., & Williams, J. M. G. (submitted for publication). A randomized clinical trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs. treatment-as-usual for health anxiety (hypochondriasis).